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Jan 27, 2023 02:42 AM
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I come across a few frameworks in effective communication, and summarised them in this article.
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Leading Communication


GROW (Goal, Reality, Options, Will/Way forward)

The GROW framework is a model for structuring coaching or goal-oriented conversations.
G - Goal: The first step is to define the goal of the conversation. This could be a specific outcome or task that the person wants to achieve. For example, "I want to improve my public speaking skills."
R - Reality: Next, the current reality or situation is assessed. This includes understanding the person's current skills, knowledge, and resources related to the goal. For example, "I get very nervous when giving presentations and often stumble over my words."
O - Options: After understanding the goal and reality, the next step is to brainstorm potential options or solutions to achieve the goal. For example, "I could take a public speaking course, practice giving presentations in front of friends and family, or use visualization techniques to calm my nerves."
W - Will/Way forward: The final step is to decide on a specific course of action and make a plan to implement it. For example, "I will sign up for a public speaking course next month and practice giving presentations to my friends and family once a week in the meantime."
So the GROW framework is a way to structure a conversation in order to achieve a specific goal by setting the goal, understanding the current reality, brainstorming options, and deciding on a plan of action.

RULER (Relationship, Understand, Lead, Empathize, and Reflect)

RULER is a framework for effective communication that stands for Relationship, Understand, Lead, Empathize, and Reflect. It is a set of tools and strategies to help improve communication with others.
  1. Relationship: Building strong relationships is crucial for effective communication. This means taking the time to get to know the person you are communicating with, understanding their needs and preferences, and creating a sense of trust and respect.
  1. Understand: Understanding the other person's perspective is key to effective communication. This means listening actively and asking questions to gain a deeper understanding of their thoughts, feelings, and needs.
  1. Lead: Leading a conversation means taking the initiative to guide it in a productive direction. This can involve setting a clear agenda or goal, summarizing key points, and redirecting the conversation if it goes off track.
  1. Empathize: Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. This means being able to put yourself in their shoes, and responding to their needs with compassion and understanding.
  1. Reflect: Reflecting on your communication skills and the interactions you have with others is important for ongoing improvement. This means taking the time to reflect on how you communicated, how the other person responded, and what you can do differently in the future.
Example: Imagine you are a manager and one of your employees comes to you with a problem they are having with a coworker. Using the RULER framework, you would first focus on building a strong relationship with your employee by listening actively to their concerns and showing empathy for their situation. Next, you would try to understand the situation from both perspectives by asking questions and gaining a deeper understanding of the problem. You would then lead the conversation by setting a clear agenda for addressing the issue and redirecting the conversation if it starts to go off track. Finally, you would reflect on the interaction and think about what you can do differently in the future to improve communication and resolve conflicts in the workplace.

High EQ communication


FFC (Feeling, Fact, Compare)

The FFC (Feeling, Fact, Compare) framework is a communication tool that helps to organize and structure information in a clear and effective way. It involves:
Feeling: Expressing your emotions or feelings about a particular topic or situation. For example, "I feel really excited about this new project."
Fact: Providing objective and verifiable information about the topic or situation. For example, "According to our research, the project will increase sales by 10%."
Compare: Making comparisons to similar situations or past experiences to provide context and perspective. For example, "This project is similar to the one we did last year, but with a few key differences, such as a larger budget and more resources."
By using the FFC framework, you can communicate your thoughts and ideas in a clear and organized way, making it easier for others to understand and respond to your message. For example, you might use the FFC framework in a meeting with your team to discuss a new business proposal:
Feeling: "I feel really excited about this new proposal. I think it has a lot of potential."
Fact: "According to our research, the market for this product is growing and there is a high demand for it."
Compare: "This proposal is similar to one we looked at a few months ago, but with a few key differences, such as a stronger marketing strategy and more resources."
By using the FFC framework, you can effectively communicate your thoughts and ideas, and make it easier for your team to understand and respond to your proposal.

OELS (Observe, Explain, Listen, and Suggest)

OELS is a framework for effective communication that stands for Observe, Explain, Listen, and Suggest. It helps individuals communicate effectively by guiding them through a structured process to understand and respond to others' needs and concerns.
Here's an example of how the OELS framework might be used in a situation where a customer is upset with a product they received:
  1. Observe: The first step is to observe the customer's behavior and body language. In this case, the customer is visibly upset and agitated.
  1. Explain: Next, the customer service representative should explain the situation to the customer. They might say something like, "I understand that you're upset with the product you received. Can you tell me more about what's bothering you?"
  1. Listen: The representative should then actively listen to the customer's concerns and take notes. The customer might say something like, "The product was damaged when I received it, and it doesn't work properly."
  1. Suggest: Finally, the representative should suggest a solution to the customer. They might say something like, "I apologize for the inconvenience. I'd be happy to process a return or exchange for you and make sure you receive a new, undamaged product."
By following the OELS framework, the customer service representative is able to effectively understand and respond to the customer's concerns, leading to a more positive outcome for both parties.

FOSSA (Feeling, Objectives, Situation, Specifics, and Action)

FOSSA is a framework for effective communication that stands for Feeling, Objectives, Situation, Specifics, and Action. It is a method to structure conversations or messages in a way that ensures all the important information is covered and the message is clear.
Example: Let's say you are a manager and you need to have a conversation with an employee who has been consistently arriving late to work. Using the FOSSA framework, the conversation would go something like this:
Feeling: "I am concerned about your recent tardiness."
Objectives: "I want to understand what is causing the lateness and how we can resolve it."
Situation: "You have been consistently arriving late for the past few weeks, which is affecting the team's productivity."
Specifics: "On Monday, you arrived 15 minutes late, on Tuesday, you were 20 minutes late, and on Wednesday, you were 30 minutes late."
Action: "I would like to schedule a meeting with you next week to discuss possible solutions and come up with a plan to ensure this doesn't happen again."
By using the FOSSA framework, the manager is able to clearly express their feelings, objectives, and specific concerns, and also provide a plan of action to resolve the issue. This helps to ensure that the employee understands the problem and that they are given the opportunity to address it.

Storytelling


SCRTV (Scene, Conflict, Reason, Tactics, and Values)

SCRTV is a framework used in communication to help structure and analyze the key elements of a message or conversation. It stands for Scene, Conflict, Reason, Tactics, and Values.
Here's an example of how SCRTV can be used to analyze a conversation:
Scene: The scene is the setting or context of the conversation. For example, imagine you're in a meeting with your boss to discuss your performance review.
Conflict: The conflict is the problem or disagreement that needs to be addressed in the conversation. In this example, the conflict might be that your boss has some concerns about your recent work and wants to discuss them with you.
Reason: The reason is the underlying cause of the conflict. In this example, the reason might be that your boss has noticed that your work has been slipping in quality and meeting deadlines.
Tactics: The tactics are the methods used to address the conflict. In this example, your boss might use tactics like giving specific examples of your recent work and suggesting ways to improve in the future.
Values: The values are the underlying beliefs or principles that influence the conversation. In this example, the values might include things like the importance of meeting deadlines and producing high-quality work.
By breaking down a conversation into these five elements, you can better understand the key points being made and how they relate to each other. This can help you respond more effectively and navigate the conversation in a more productive way.

SCI (Situation, Complication, Implication)

The SCI (Situation, Complication, Implication) framework is a tool used in communication to help structure and organize information in a clear and concise manner.
Here's an example of how it could be used:
Situation: A customer is experiencing issues with their internet connection. Complication: The customer's internet connection is slow and keeps cutting out, making it difficult for them to complete their work. Implication: If the customer is unable to complete their work, they may miss important deadlines and it could negatively impact their productivity.
The Situation is the background or context of the issue. In this example, the Situation is that the customer is experiencing issues with their internet connection.
The Complication is the problem or obstacle that needs to be addressed. In this example, the Complication is that the customer's internet connection is slow and keeps cutting out.
The Implication is the potential impact or consequences of the problem. In this example, the Implication is that if the customer is unable to complete their work, they may miss important deadlines and it could negatively impact their productivity.
By using the SCI framework, the customer's issue is presented in a clear and organized way, making it easier for the customer service representative to understand and address the problem.
 

Structured communication


STAR

The STAR framework is a technique used in communication to effectively convey information about a particular situation, task, action, or result. It stands for Situation, Task, Action, and Result.
Example: Let's say you are interviewing for a job and the interviewer asks you to give an example of a time when you had to resolve a difficult situation. Using the STAR framework, you could respond by saying:
Situation: "I was working as a customer service representative and received a call from a customer who was extremely upset because their order had not arrived on time."
Task: "My task was to understand the customer's concern and find a solution to the problem."
Action: "I listened carefully to the customer, apologized for the inconvenience and checked their order status. I discovered that the order had been delayed due to a shipping issue. I offered to refund their shipping costs and expedite their order."
Result: "The customer was satisfied with my solution and decided to keep their order. They even complimented me on my customer service skills."
This way, the interviewer can understand the situation, task, action and result that you took to resolve the difficult situation.
 

SCQA (Situation, Complication, Question, and Answer)

SCQA stands for Situation, Complication, Question, and Answer. It's a framework used in communication to structure and organize information in a clear and logical way.
Example:
Situation: A customer is trying to purchase a new phone online.
Complication: The customer is having trouble finding the phone they want in their preferred color.
Question: Can the customer find the phone they want in the color they prefer?
Answer: Yes, the customer can find the phone they want in the color they prefer by using the search function on the website and filtering by color.

Persuasive communication


RIDE (Risk, Interpret, Difference, Effect)

The RIDE (Risk, Interpret, Difference, Effect) framework is a tool used in communication to help evaluate and understand different perspectives in a conversation or discussion.
  1. Risk: The first step is to identify any potential risks or negative consequences that may arise from the conversation or decision. For example, in a business meeting, discussing a potential new product launch may bring up the risk of losing current customers if the new product doesn't sell well.
  1. Interpret: The second step is to interpret the information presented in the conversation. This means looking at the facts and data being presented and understanding the context in which they are being presented. For example, in a political debate, interpreting the candidate's statements about their policy proposals may reveal their underlying motivations and values.
  1. Difference: The third step is to identify any differences or disagreements that may exist between different perspectives in the conversation. For example, in a family discussion about a vacation, one person may want to go to the beach while another wants to go to the mountains, revealing a difference in preferences.
  1. Effect: The final step is to consider the potential effects or outcomes of the conversation or decision. This includes both the positive and negative consequences. For example, in a company meeting discussing a new employee benefit, the effect may be increased employee satisfaction and retention, but also increased costs for the company.
Overall, the RIDE framework helps people to better understand and navigate conversations by considering the risks, interpreting the information, identifying differences and considering the potential effects.

PREP

The PREP framework is a method used in communication to organize and present information in a clear and logical way. It stands for Point, Reason, Example, and Point.
Here's an example of how it works:
Point: Increasing the minimum wage will benefit low-income workers.
Reason: This is because it will allow them to have more money to cover basic living expenses and improve their standard of living.
Example: For example, if the minimum wage were increased from $7.25 to $15 per hour, a full-time worker would earn an additional $15,000 per year. This could make a significant difference in their ability to afford housing, healthcare, and other necessities.
Point: Overall, increasing the minimum wage is a fair and necessary step towards reducing poverty and improving the well-being of low-income workers.
By following the PREP framework, the speaker is able to clearly present their point, explain the reasoning behind it, provide an example to support it, and then reiterate the point for emphasis. This makes it easy for the listener to understand and follow the argument being presented.
 

FIRE (Fact, Interpretation, Reactions, Ends)

FIRE is a framework for effective communication that helps to structure and organize information in a clear and concise way. It stands for Fact, Interpretation, Reactions, and Ends.
Fact: This is the objective information that is being communicated, such as data, statistics, or observations. It is the foundation of the message and should be presented in a clear and unbiased manner.
  • Example: The company's profits have decreased by 10% over the past quarter.
Interpretation: This is the analysis of the facts, where the information is put into context and the meaning or implications are explained. It is important to be honest and transparent about any assumptions or biases that may influence the interpretation.
  • Example: The decrease in profits may be due to a decline in sales in our primary market.
Reactions: This is the emotional or subjective response to the information, such as feelings, opinions, or concerns. It is important to acknowledge and address any reactions, as they can affect how the message is received and understood.
  • Example: I am concerned about the impact this will have on our employees and shareholders.
Ends: This is the action or outcome that is desired or intended as a result of the communication. It should be clear, specific, and measurable, and should take into account the reactions and interpretation of the message.
  • Example: We need to take action to increase sales in our primary market and regain profitability.
By following the FIRE framework, the communication is clear, well-structured, and easy to understand. This can help to ensure that the message is received and understood correctly, and that the desired outcome is achieved.
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