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Jun 15, 2022 06:01 AM
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Problem Solving
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Questioning
Mental Model
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Due to the rapid addition of new information and the advancement of science and technology that occur almost daily, an engineer must constantly expand his or her horizons beyond simple gathering information and relying on the basic engineering principles. A number of homework problems have been included that are designed to enhance critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is the process we use to reflect on, access and judge the assumptions underlying our own and others ideas and actions. Socratic questioning is at the heart of critical thinking and a number of homework problems draw from R.W. Paul's six types of Socratic questions:
1. Questions for clarification:
Why do you say that? How does this relate to our discussion? "Are you going to include diffusion in your mole balance equations?"
What could we assume instead? How can you verify or disapprove that assumption? "Why are neglecting radial diffusion and including only axial diffusion?"
What would be an example? What is....analogous to? What do you think causes to happen...? Why:? "Do you think that diffusion is responsible for the lower conversion?"
What would be an alternative? What is another way to look at it? Would you explain why it is necessary or beneficial, and who benefits? Why is the best? What are the strengths and weaknesses of...? How are...and ...similar? What is a counterargument for...? "With all the bends in the pipe, from an industrial/practical standpoint, do you think diffusion will affect the conversion?"
What generalizations can you make? What are the consequences of that assumption? What are you implying? How does...affect...? How does...tie in with what we learned before? "How would our results be affected if neglected diffusion?"
What was the point of this question? Why do you think I asked this question? What does...mean? How does...apply to everyday life? "Why do you think diffusion is important?"
 

Socratic Questioning

Socratic questioning can be used to establish first principles through stringent analysis. This a disciplined questioning process, used to establish truths, reveal underlying assumptions, and separate knowledge from ignorance. The key distinction between Socratic questioning and normal discussions is that the former seeks to draw out first principles in a systematic manner. Socratic questioning generally follows this process:
  1. Clarifying your thinking and explaining the origins of your ideas (Why do I think this? What exactly do I think?)
  1. Challenging assumptions (How do I know this is true? What if I thought the opposite?)
  1. Looking for evidence (How can I back this up? What are the sources?)
  1. Considering alternative perspectives (What might others think? How do I know I am correct?)
  1. Examining consequences and implications (What if I am wrong? What are the consequences if I am?)
  1. Questioning the original questions (Why did I think that? Was I correct? What conclusions can I draw from the reasoning process?)
 
 
Clarifying your thinking and explaining the origins of your ideas
Why do I think this?
What exactly do I think?
Challenging assumptions
How do I know this is true?
What if I thought the opposite?
Looking for evidence
How can I back this up?
What are the sources?
Considering alternative perspectives
What might others think?
How do I know I am correct?
Examining consequences and implications
What if I am wrong?
What are the consequences if I am?
Questioning the original questions
Why did I think that?
Was I correct?
What conclusions can I draw from the reasoning process?
5 why 5 so and how to prioritise things Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain

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Jason Siu
A warm welcome! I am a tech enthusiast who loves sharing my passion for learning and self-discovery through my website.
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